“Card, Conversation, Confirmation”; this formula (from Ron Jeffries) captures the components of a User Story:

  • a “Card” (or often a Post-It note), a physical token giving tangible and durable form to what would otherwise only be an abstraction:
  • a “conversation” taking place at different time and places during a project between the various people concerned by a given feature of a software product: customers, users, developers, testers; this conversation is largely verbal but most often supplemented by documentation;
  • the “confirmation”, finally, the more formal the better, that the objectives the conversation revolved around have been reached.


  • 2001: the Card, Conversation, Confirmation¬†model is proposed by Ron Jeffries to distinguish “social” user stories from “documentary” requirements practices such as use cases

Agile Alliance Resources

Help Us Keep Definitions Updated

Let us know if we need to revise this Glossary Term.