Often user stories contain ghosts, these are human actors that the system needs to be interactive with to deliver the user story value, but they aren’t mentioned or sufficiently defined. Often these ghosts only become visible once we have shipped and you hear their ghoulish screams. This is the post-release fright where we discover we haven’t delivered value to the end user.

How can we discover and capture this ghostly tacit knowledge to avoid the post-release fright? Every screaming post-release ghost was once a user, but we buried them in our user discussions and stories by using Personas. This presentation will demonstrate practical techniques on how we can discover users before we bury them in specification workshops and ‘three amigos conversations’. These techniques will focus on refining the opaque users using job roles instead of personas and allow you to iterate through potential users during discussions.

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